By Commander William Hovgaard
Professor of Naval Design and Construction, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. Read to the Royal Canadian Institute, January 23rd, 1915

Images – photos and schematics.

Click on any image for an enlargement.

Bushnell's boat The American Turtle and Le Plongeur

Hovgaard 1888 and the Narval

Germani and Laurenti types

The Hollad, the Foca and HMS E4.

U 15 and the Havmanden.

Diesel engine and the Norwegian Kobben.



This page was first posted 23 May 2003.